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Why Is the IX-Dimensional Model of Personality: Hexaco Important?
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Neuroticism, extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness to experience are five broad qualities that are typically used to summarise personality traits. However, in the early 2000s, psychologists Ashton and Lee discovered evidence of a sixth personality element, leading to the development of the HEXACO personality model.

Ashton and Lee created a six-dimensional model of human personality which is known as the HEXACO model of personality, it is based on the work of Costa, McCrae, and Goldberg too.

HEXACO model, human personality is described in six factors:

  • H stands for Honest – Humility,
  • He stands for Emotionality,
  • X stands for Extraversion,
  • A stand for Agreeableness,
  • C stands for Conscientiousness and
  • O stands for Openness to Experience.

All factors contain their own characteristics that indicated high and low levels of the factor.


Factor Analysis is a method used on the adjectives of the factors to test personality.

  • Honest – The humility factor is associated with the degree to which an individual promotes self-interests above others. 

The narrower personality characteristics or the sub-scales of Honest – Humility factor includes Sincerity, Fairness, Greed Avoidance, and Modesty. Sincerity measures the willingness or unwillingness of the individual to be manipulative or dishonest in their dealings with other people to get a desired outcome. Fairness measures the willingness or unwillingness of the individual to cheat, corrupt, or take advantage of others to get ahead and the willingness or unwillingness to treat everyone equally.

  • Emotionality is a factor is associated with the tendency to show empathy and attachment to one’s family and relations. 

The narrower personality characteristics include fearfulness, anxiety, dependence, and sentimentality. Individuals scoring high on this factor may develop common mental disorders and may experience feelings such as fear, anxiety, frustration, anger, moody worry, guilt, etc. The adjectives which are assessed are Emotional, oversensitive, sentimental, scared fearful, worried anxious, fragile vulnerable in contrast to bold rave, tough, independent, self-assured, and stable are some of the adjectives associated with emotionality.

  • The extraversion factor is associated with the individual’s attitude toward the external environment and other people.

The narrower personality characteristics of the Extraversion factor include social self-esteem, social boldness, sociability, and liveliness. The adjectives which are assessed are outgoing, lively, extraverted, sociable, talkative, cheerful, and active versus shy, passive, withdrawn, introverted, quiet, and reserved.

  • The agreeableness factor is associated with individual behavioral characteristics that are perceived as kind, sympathetic, cooperative, warm, and considerate. 

The narrower personality characteristics or the sub-scales of the Agreeableness factor include forgiveness, gentleness, flexibility, and patience. Forgiveness measures the response of an individual to the deception and whether an individual tends to regain trust or not.  Gentleness measures the way an individual evaluates others, that is, whether an individual is over-judgmental or not. Flexibility measures the behavior of an individual related to compromise and cooperation.

  • The conscientiousness factor is associated with being careful or diligent. 

The narrower personality characteristics of the Conscientiousness factor include organization, diligence, perfectionism, and prudence. The adjectives which are assessed are organized, disciplined, diligent, careful, thorough, and precise versus sloppy, negligent, reckless, lazy, irresponsible, and absent-minded. This factor is generally assessed using self-report measures.

  • Openness to Experience is the factor used to describe the human personality and is related to positive relationships with creativity, intelligence, and knowledge.

The narrower personality characteristics of the Conscientiousness factor include aesthetic appreciation, inquisitiveness, creativity, and unconventionality. The adjectives which are assessed are intellectual, creative, unconventional, innovative, and ironic versus shallow, unimaginative, and conventional. This factor can also be assessed using self–report measures.

The HEXACO model of personality can be used in many areas of psychology as it allows behavioral testing. It can also be used in organizations and also by top psychologists in India, to know more about the personality of the person. The model is also found to support the relationship between social and ethical behavior.

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